This advanced-level python course gives you an opportunity to dive a lot deeper into Python programming, and learn the advanced notions and techniques used in Object-Oriented Programming, GUI programming, and Network Programming, as well as get you familiar with the topics of file processing and communicating with a program's environment, and best programming practices and standardization in Python.
In this course, we'll take a deep dive into several advanced concepts of the Python ecosystem and explore larger-scale application development using the language. You’ll also develop an understanding of the issues associated with more extensive software projects and undertake code reviews. At the end of this course, you’ll have the necessary tools to both continue into web development as well as to start digging into other areas of specialization, such as functional programming and deep learning.
The Objectives of Python Programming are
· To learn about Python programming language syntax, semantics, and the runtime environment.
· To be familiarized with universal computer programming concepts like data types, containers.
· To be familiarized with general computer programming concepts like conditional execution, loops & functions.
· To be familiarized with general coding techniques and object-oriented programming.
· Develop essential programming skills in computer programming concepts like data types, containers.
· Apply the basics of programming in the Python language.
· Solve coding tasks related conditional execution, loops.
· Solve coding tasks related to the fundamental notions and techniques used in objectoriented programming.
What is Python? Python is a popular programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum, and released in 1991. It is used for: web development (server-side), software development, mathematics, system scripting. What can Python do? Python can be used on a server to create web applications. Python can be used alongside software to create workflows. Python can connect to database systems. It can also read and modify files. Python can be used to handle big data and perform complex mathematics. Python can be used for rapid prototyping, or for production-ready software development. Why Python? Python works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc). Python has a simple syntax similar to the English language. Python has syntax that allows developers to write programs with fewer lines than some other programming languages. Python runs on an interpreter system, meaning that code can be executed as soon as it is written. This means that prototyping can be very quick. Python can be treated in a procedural way, an object-oriented way or a functional way.
There are three numeric types in Python: int float complex As Python is a Loosely typed language, we need not define the variable. Variables of numeric types are created when you assign a value to them.
Python is a dynamic, interpreted (bytecode-compiled) language. There are no type declarations of variables, parameters, functions, or methods in source code. This makes the code short and flexible, and you lose the compile-time type checking of the source code. Python tracks the types of all values at runtime and flags code that does not make sense as it runs.
Variables Variables are containers for storing data values.
A string is a data structure in Python that represents a sequence of characters. It is an immutable data type, meaning that once you have created a string, you cannot change it. Strings are used widely in many different applications, such as storing and manipulating text data, representing names, addresses, and other types of data that can be represented as text.
Python does not have a character data type, a single character is simply a string with a length of 1. Square brackets can be used to access elements of the string.
Data types are the classification or categorization of data items. It represents the kind of value that tells what operations can be performed on a particular data. Since everything is an object in Python programming, data types are actually classes and variables are instance (object) of these classes.
Python input() function is used to take the values from the user. This function is called to tell the program to stop and wait for the user to input the values. It is a built-in function. The input() function is used in both the version of Python 2.x and Python 3.x. In Python 3.x, the input function explicitly converts the input you give to type string. But Python 2.x input function takes the value and type of the input you enter as it is without modifying the type.
In Python programming, sequences are a generic term for an ordered set which means that the order in which we input the items will be the same when we access them. Python supports six different types of sequences. These are strings, lists, tuples, byte sequences, byte arrays, and range objects. We will discuss each of them.
The slice() function returns a slice object. A slice object is used to specify how to slice a sequence. You can specify where to start the slicing, and where to end. You can also specify the step, which allows you to e.g. slice only every other item
Python List Methodshas multiple methods to work with Python lists, Below we’ve explained all the methods you can use with Python lists, for example, append(), copy(), insert() and more.
Decision making is anticipation of conditions occurring while execution of the program and specifying actions taken according to the conditions. Decision structures evaluate multiple expressions which produce TRUE or FALSE as outcome. You need to determine which action to take and which statements to execute if outcome is TRUE or FALSE otherwise.
In Python, list slicing is a common practice and it is the most used technique for programmers to solve efficient problems. Consider a python list, In-order to access a range of elements in a list, you need to slice a list. One way to do this is to use the simple slicing operator i.e. colon(:)
A method is a function that “belongs to” an object. (In Python, the term method is not unique to class instances: other object types can have methods as well. For example, list objects have methods called append, insert, remove, sort, and so on.
Objects can also contain methods. Methods in objects are functions that belong to the object.
In Python, use the sorted() built-in function to sort a Tuple. The tuple should be passed as an argument to the sorted() function. The tuple items are sorted (by default) in ascending order in the list returned by the function. We can use a tuple to convert this list data type to a tuple ().
Python has a built-in string class named "str" with many handy features (there is an older module named "string" which you should not use).
Control statements in python are used to control the order of execution of the program based on the values and logic. Python provides us with 3 types of Control Statements: Continue Break Pass
Python provides a lot of built-in functions to manipulate strings. Python String is immutable, so all these functions return a new string and the original string remains unchanged. Python String Functions There are many functions to operate on String. However, it’s not feasible to remember all of them. So here I am dividing them into different categories. Must Know String Functions Good to Know String Functions Miscellaneous String Functions Built-in Functions that work on String Useful String Operations Must Know String Fu
Dictionaries are used to store data values in key:value pairs. A dictionary is a collection which is ordered*, changeable and do not allow duplicates.
Decision making is an essential concept in any programming language and is required when you want to execute code when a specific condition is satisfied. In this blog, you will learn about the famous if-else statement in Python. We’ll be using Jupyter Notebook to demonstrate the code.
In Python, elif is short for "else if" and is used when the first if statement isn't true, but you want to check for another condition
Python provides inbuilt functions for creating, writing, and reading files. There are two types of files that can be handled in python, normal text files and binary files (written in binary language, 0s, and 1s). Text files: In this type of file, Each line of text is terminated with a special character called EOL (End of Line), which is the new line character (‘\n’) in python by default. Binary files: In this type of file, there is no terminator for a line, and the data is stored after converting it into machine-understandable binary language.
A nested if is a flow control statement that's the target of another if-statement. By nested-if statements, we mean to use an if-statement inside another if-statement. In Python, it is possible to place one if-statement inside the other if-statement.
Comparison operators, also known as relational operators in Python, compare the values on either side of them and returns a boolean value. They tell whether a statement is True or False according to the condition. In this tutorial, we will discuss 6 different types of comparison operators in Python.
There are three Boolean operators in Python: and, or, and not. With them, you can test conditions and decide which execution path your programs will take. In this tutorial, you’ll learn about the Python or operator and how to use it.
What is Loop? Loops can execute a block of code number of times until a certain condition is met. Their usage is fairly common in programming. Unlike other programming language that have For Loop, while loop, dowhile, etc. What is For Loop? For loop is used to iterate over elements of a sequence. It is often used when you have a piece of code which you want to repeat “n” number of time. What is While Loop? While Loop is used to repeat a block of code. Instead of running the code block once, It executes the code block multiple times until a certain condition is met.
What is a List in Python? A list is just like an array, but its declaration occurs in other languages. The lists don’t always need to be homogenous. Thus, it becomes the most powerful tool in the case of the Python language. A single list may consist of various DataTypes, such as Strings, Integers, and also Objects. The Lists are always mutable. Thus, we can alter it even after we create it. What is a Dictionary in Python? A dictionary, on the other hand, refers to an unordered collection of the data values that we use for storing the data values, such as a map. Unlike the other DataTypes, which are capable of holding only a single value in the form of an element, a Dictionary is capable of holding the key:value pair. In a Dictionary, a colon separates all the key-value pairs from each other, while a comma separates all the keys from each other.
A for loop is a single-line command that will be executed repeatedly. While loops can be single-lined or contain multiple commands for a single condition. Both the for loop and the while loop are important in computer languages for obtaining results. The condition is met if the command syntax is correct.
An infinite loop in Python is used to run a certain program or block of code an unspecified number of times. A finite loop in Python is used to run a certain program or block of code a certain number of times.
Python allows function arguments to have default values. If the function is called without the argument, the argument gets its default value.
Python too supports file handling and allows users to handle files i.e., to read and write files, along with many other file handling options, to operate on files. The concept of file handling has stretched over various other languages, but the implementation is either complicated or lengthy, but like other concepts of Python, this concept here is also easy and short. Python treats files differently as text or binary and this is important. Each line of code includes a sequence of characters and they form a text file
5 Types of Arguments in Python Function Definitions default arguments. keyword arguments. positional arguments. arbitrary positional arguments. arbitrary keyword arguments.
Tuples have many applications in all the domains of Python programming. They are immutable and hence are important containers to ensure read-only access, or keeping elements persistent for more time. Usually, they can be used to pass to functions and can have different kinds of behavior. Different cases can arise.
In Python, object-oriented Programming (OOPs) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and classes in programming. It aims to implement real-world entities like inheritance, polymorphisms, encapsulation, etc. in the programming. The main concept of OOPs is to bind the data and the functions that work on that together as a single unit so that no other part of the code can access this data.
self represents the instance of the class. By using the “self” we can access the attributes and methods of the class in python. It binds the attributes with the given arguments. The reason you need to use self. is because Python does not use the @ syntax to refer to instance attributes. Python decided to do methods in a way that makes the instance to which the method belongs be passed automatically, but not received automatically: the first parameter of methods is the instance the method is called on.
The class from which a class inherits is called the parent or superclass. A class which inherits from a superclass is called a subclass, also called heir class or child class. Superclasses are sometimes called ancestors as well. There exists a hierarchical relationship between classes.
What Is Object-Oriented Programming in Python? Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that provides a means of structuring programs so that properties and behaviors are bundled into individual objects.
Some values in python can be modified, and some cannot. This does not ever mean that we can't change the value of a variable – but if a variable contains a value of an immutable type, we can only assign it a new value. We cannot alter the existing value in any way.
Python supports multiple inheritance, where a class can have multiple parent classes.
Constructors are generally used for instantiating an object. The task of constructors is to initialize(assign values) to the data members of the class when an object of the class is created. In Python the __init__() method is called the constructor and is always called when an object is created.
Import in python is similar to #include header_file in C/C++. Python modules can get access to code from another module by importing the file/function using import. The import statement is the most common way of invoking the import machinery, but it is not the only way
In Python, the reload() reloads a previously imported module. Reloading modules are helpful if you have edited existing modules source files using an external editor and want to use the new version of the modules without leaving the Python interpreter. The return value of reload() is the module object.
Errors are the problems in a program due to which the program will stop the execution. On the other hand, exceptions are raised when some internal events occur which changes the normal flow of the program. Two types of Error occurs in python. Syntax errors Logical errors (Exceptions)
In Python, Modules are simply files with the “.py” extension containing Python code that can be imported inside another Python Program.
Python has several built-in modules and functions for handling files. These functions are spread out over several modules such as os, os.path, shutil, and pathlib, to name a few. This article gathers in one place many of the functions you need to know in order to perform the most common operations on files in Python.
One of the most common tasks that you can do with Python is reading and writing files. Whether it’s writing to a simple text file, reading a complicated server log, or even analyzing raw byte data, all of these situations require reading or writing a file.
In Python, there are many functions for reading and writing files. Both reading and writing functions work on open files (files opened and linked via a file object). In this section, we are going to discuss the write functions to manipulate our data through files.
There are many graphical user interface (GUI) toolkits that you can use with the Python programming language. The big three are Tkinter, wxPython, and PyQt. Each of these toolkits will work with Windows, macOS, and Linux, with PyQt having the additional capability of working on mobile
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Advance Certification in Python | Belhaven University
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